The urinary tract of domestic animals is composed of the kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra. It opens into the vagina in the female and into the penis in the male. Normally the environment in the urinary tract is not favorable for bacteria. This is because the high concentration of salts and acidity of the urine is toxic for most living organisms, including bacteria. In addition, the urinary tract has physical barriers made of muscle rings (sphincters) that close the communication to the outside of the body. However, because of deficiencies in the sphincters, low immunity, or metabolic changes, bacteria may find its way up the urethra and into the bladder, causing inflammation with pain. In some cases metabolic problems induce the formation of crystals in the urine. Crystals cause mechanical damage to the bladder and favor the invasion by bacteria.
Signs of UTI include the urge to urinate, urination of small amounts frequently, blood tinged urine, urination in unusual places, and apparent loss of house-training. In cats, severe UTI with crystals may result in blockage of the urethra and inability to urinate (this is an emergency that requires immediate veterinary intervention).
In some cases, animals may show signs of UTI without infection of the bladder. This is a sterile inflammation of unknown causes, called Interstitial Cystitis.
Chronic UTI may occur at any age. Animals may start at an early age. They usually respond to antibiotic treatment, but the signs recur shortly after the end of the course of antibiotics. Many animals continue having bouts of UTI despite the use of restricted diets.
In Dr. Moncayo's practice he has found constitutional homeopathic treatment the most effective way to completely eliminate a chronic UTI.